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Học ngữ pháp TOEIC – Thì hiện tại hoàn thành – Học hay

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Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 7: Hiện tại hoàn thành (Present Perfect) – HocHay

1. Cách dùng thì hiện tại hoàn thành:

Cách sử dụng thì hiện tại hoàn thành (the present perfect tense)

Ví dụ

Thì hiện tại hoàn thành được dùng để diễn tả một hành động hay sự việc mới xảy ra

have just seen a dog in the park.
(Tôi mới nhìn thấy một con chó trong công viên)

She has finished her homework recently.
(Cô ấy mới làm xong bài tập về nhà)

Thì hiện tại hoàn thành diễn tả một hành động được lặp đi lặp lại trong quá khứ và có thể được lặp lại ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai.

Nam has read that comic book several times.
(Nam đã đọc cuốn truyện tranh đó nhiều lần)

have seen ‘Spider man’ three times.
(Tôi đã coi bộ phim Người nhện ba lần)

Thì hiện tại hoàn thành trong tiếng anh  diễn tả hành động hoặc sự việc xảy ra trong quá khứ khi người nói không biết rõ hoặc không muốn đề cập đến thời gian chính xác

have gone to Italy.
(Tôi đã đến thăm nước Ý)

He has done his homework.
(Anh ấy đã làm xong bài tập về nhà)

Thì hiện tại hoàn thành diễn tả một hành động hoặc sự việc xảy ra trong quá khứ, kéo dài đến hiện tại và có khả năng tiếp tục ở tương lai

Trang has lived in Hanoi for two years.
(Trang đã ở Hà Nội được 2 năm)

We have studied English since 2000.
(Chúng tôi bắt đầu học tiếng Anh từ năm 2000)

Thì present perfect diễn tả một hành động hoặc sự việc đã xảy ra trong quá khứ nhưng kết quả vẫn còn trong hiện tại

Binh has broken his leg so he can’t play football.
(Bình đã bị gãy chân nên anh ấy không thể chơi được bóng đá)

have broken my bike so I can’t go to work.
(Tôi đã làm hư xe nên tôi không thể đi làm)

Lưu ý: Chúng ta không sử dụng thì hiện tại hoàn thành (htht) với các cụm từ chỉ thời gian mang tính cụ thể như: last year, yesterday, when I was young, in 1995

2. Công thức thì hiện tại hoàn thành:

  1. Thể khẳng định:

S + have/has + V3/-ed + O + …

Chủ ngữ Cách chia have/has
I/ you/ they/ we have
he/ she/ it has

Ví dụ:

  • have finished studying already.
    (Tôi đã hoàn thành việc học của mình)
  • He has been to his office.
    (Anh ấy đã đến công ty)

 

  1. Thể phủ định:

S + haven’t/hasn’t + V3/-ed + O + …

Chủ ngữ Cách chia have/has
I/ you/ we/ they haven’t (have not)
he/ she/ it hasn’t (has not)

Ví dụ:

  • They haven’t returned my bike yet.
    (Họ vẫn chưa trả lại xe cho tôi)
  • She hasn’t seen the doctor.
    (Cô ấy vẫn chưa đi gặp bác sĩ)
  1. Thể nghi vấn:
  Công thức Ví dụ

Yes/no question

– Dạng câu hỏi phủ định yes/no được dùng khi người nói kỳ vọng câu trả lời sẽ là “yes”

Have/has + S + V3/-ed + O + …? Have you had lunch yet?
(Bạn đã ăn trưa chưa?)
Haven’t/hasn’t + S + V3/-ed + O + …? Hasn’t she seen that movie?
(Cô ta chưa coi bộ phim đó sao?)
Have/has + S + not + V3/-ed + O + …? Has she not seen that movie?
Wh- question
(Các từ để hỏi gồm what, when, where, why, how, which, …) 

– Dạng câu hỏi phủ định Wh- được dùng để nhấn mạnh hoặc dùng như bình thường

Từ để hỏi + have/has + S + V3/-ed + O +…? Where has he been?
(Anh ta đã ở đâu thế?)
Từ để hỏi + haven’t/hasn’t + S + V3/-ed + O +…? Why haven’t you gone to bed yet?
(Tại sao con vẫn chưa đi ngủ hả?)
Từ để hỏi + have/has + S + V3/-ed + not+  O +…? Why have you not gone to bed yet?

3. Dấu hiệu thì hiện tại hoàn thành:

Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì hiện tại hoàn thành: trong câu có các từ như: up to now, up to the present, so far, lately, recently, before, for (đi với quảng thời gian), since (đi với mốc thời gian), yet, ever (never), already, not … yet, this/ that/ it is the first/ second/ third/ … time, it is the only, this/ that/ it is + so sánh nhất.

Ví dụ:

  • This is the most beautiful girl I’ve ever met.
    (Đây là cô gái xinh đẹp nhất mà tôi từng gặp)
  • haven’t seen you for years.
    (Tôi đã không gặp em mấy năm nay rồi)

Bài tập Ngữ pháp tiếng anh luyện thi TOEIC – Unit 7: Hiện tại hoàn thành (Present Perfect) – HocHay

  1. Read the situations and complete the sentences using the present perfect. Choose from these verbs:

break    disappear            go up     grow      improve              lose        shrink    stop

 

1 Tom is looking for his key. He can’t find it. Tom …………………………….

2 Maria’s English wasn’t very good. Now it is better. Her English………………………….

3 My bag was here, but it isn’t here any more. My bag………………………….

4 Lisa can’t walk and her leg is in plaster. Lisa………………………….

5 Last week the bus fare was £1.80. Now it is £2. The bus fare………………………….

6 Dan didn’t have a beard before. Now he has a beard. Dan………………………….

7 It was raining ten minutes ago. It isn’t raining now. It………………………….

8 I washed my sweater, and now it’s too small for me. My sweater………………………….

B Put in been or gone.

1 My parents are on holiday. They’ve …………………………. to Italy.

2 Hello! I’ve just ………………………….to the shops. I’ve bought lots of things.

3 Tom has just ………………………….out. He’ll be back in about an hour.

4 Alice isn’t here at the moment. I don’t know where she’s …………………………..

5 You’re very late. Where have you…………………………. ?

C Complete the sentences using the present perfect.

1 Sally is still here. ……………………. (she / not / go) out.

2 I can’t find my bag. ………………….(you / see / it) anywhere?

3 I can’t log on to the website. ………………….(I / forget) my password.

4 I sent Joe an email this morning, but ………………….(he / not / reply).

5 Is the meeting still going on, or ………………….(it / finish)?

6 ………………….(the weather / change). It’s colder now.

7 ………………….(you / not / sign) the form. Could you sign it now, please?

8 Are your friends still here, or ………………….(they / go) home?

9 Paul doesn’t know what he’s going to do.…………………. (he / not / decide / yet).

10 ‘Do you know where Julia is?’ ‘Yes, ………………….(I / just / see / her).’

11 ‘When is David going away?’ ‘ ………………….(he / already / go).’

12 A: ………………….(your course / start / yet)?

B: Not yet. It starts next week.

D Read the situations and write sentences with just, already or yet.

1 After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says, ‘Would you like something to eat?’

You say: No thank you. …………………………. . (have lunch)

2 Joe goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says, ‘Can I speak to Joe?’

You say: I’m afraid ……………………….. (go out)

3 You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away.

You say: Wait a minute!………………………. . (not / finish)

4 You plan to eat at a restaurant tonight. You phone to reserve a table. Later your friend says,

‘Shall I phone to reserve a table?’ You say: No,………………………. . (do it)

5 You know that Lisa is looking for a place to live. Perhaps she has been successful.

You ask her: ……………………….? (find)

6 You are still thinking about where to go for your holiday. A friend asks, ‘Where are you going for your holiday?’

You say: ……………………….. (not / decide)

7 Laura went out, but a few minutes ago she returned. Somebody asks, ‘Is Laura still out?’

You say: No, ……………………….. (come back)

 

E You ask people about things they have done. Write questions with ever.

1 (ride / horse?) ……………………………..

2 (be / California?) Have……………………………..

3 (run / marathon?)……………………………..

4 (speak / famous person?)……………………………..

5 (most beautiful place / visit?) What’s……………………………..

 

F Complete B’s answers. Some sentences are positive and some negative. Use these verbs:

be           be           eat        happen                have      have      meet     play        read       see         try

 

A

B

1 What’s Mark’s sister like?

2 Is everything going well?

3 Are you hungry?

4 Can you play chess?

5 Are you enjoying your holiday?

6 What’s that book about?

7 Is Brussels an interesting place?

8 I hear your car broke down again yesterday.

9 Do you like caviar?

10 Mike was late for work again today.

11 Who’s that woman by the door?

 

I’ve no idea. …………………….. her.

Yes, we ………………….. any problems so far.

Yes. I …………………..much today.

Yes, but …………………..for ages.

Yes, it’s the best holiday …………………..for a long time.

I don’t know. …………………..it.

I’ve no idea.………………….. there.

Yes, it’s the second time …………………..this month.

I don’t know. …………………..it.

Again? He …………………..late every day this week.

I don’t know. …………………..her before.

 

G Write four sentences about yourself. Use I haven’t and choose from the boxes.

used a computer

been to the cinema

travelled by bus

read a book

eaten any fruit

lost anything

today

this week

recently

for ages

since …

this year

 

H Read the situations and complete the sentences.

1 Jack is driving a car for the first time. He’s very nervous and not sure what to do.

…………………………………….a car.

2 Some children at the zoo are looking at a giraffe. They’ve never seen one before.

It’s the first time …………………………………….a giraffe.

3 Sue is riding a horse. She doesn’t look very confident or comfortable.

She …………………………………….before.

4 Joe and Lisa are on holiday in Japan. They’ve been to Japan once before.

This is the second time ……………………………………..

5 Emily is staying at the Prince Hotel. She stayed there a few years ago.

It’s not the first …………………………………….this hotel.

6 Ben is playing tennis for the first time. He’s a complete beginner.

…………………………………….before.

Đáp án

A

  1. has lost his key

2 Her English has improved.

3 My bag has disappeared.

4 Lisa has broken her leg.

5 The bus fare has gone up.

6 Dan has grown a beard.

7 It’s stopped raining. / It has stopped raining.

8 My sweater has shrunk. / My sweater’s shrunk

B

  1. gone

2 been

3 gone

4 gone

5 been

C

  1. She hasn’t gone

2 Have you seen it

3 I’ve forgotten / I have forgotten

4 he hasn’t replied

5 has it finished

6 The weather has changed

7 You haven’t signed

8 have they gone

9 He hasn’t decided yet

10 I’ve just seen her / I have just seen her

11 He’s already gone / He has already gone

12 Has your course started yet You can also use the past simple (Did you see, he didn’t reply etc.) in this exercise

D

  1. I’ve just had lunch

2 he’s just gone out / he has just gone out or he just went out

3 I haven’t finished yet, or I didn’t finish yet.

4 I’ve already done it. / I have already done it, or I already did it. / I did it already.

5 Have you found a place to live yet? or Did you find a place …?

6 I haven’t decided yet. Or I didn’t decide yet.

7 she’s just come back / she has just come back or she just came back

E

  1. Have you ever ridden a horse?

2 Have you ever been to California?

3 Have you ever run a marathon?

4 Have you ever spoken to a famous person?

5 What’s the most beautiful place you’ve ever visited? / … you have ever visited?

F

  1. I haven’t met
  2. haven’t had

3 haven’t eaten

4 I haven’t played (it)

5 I’ve had / I have had

6 I haven’t read

7 I’ve never been / I haven’t been

8 it’s happened / it has happened or that’s happened / that has happened

9 I’ve never tried / I haven’t tried or I’ve never eaten / I haven’t eaten

10 ’s been / has been

11 I’ve never seen / I haven’t seen

G

  1. I haven’t used a computer today.

Example answers:

2 I haven’t travelled by bus this week.

3 I haven’t been to the cinema recently.

4 I haven’t read a book for ages.

5 I haven’t lost anything today

H

  1. It’s the first time he’s driven

2 It’s the first time they’ve seen a giraffe. / … they have seen …

3 She’s / She has never ridden a horse before.

4 This is the second time they’ve been to Japan. / … they have been to Japan.

5 It’s not the first time she’s / she has / Emily has stayed at this hotel.

6 He’s / He has / Ben has never played tennis before. Or He/Ben hasn’t played tennis before

 

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